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Symbol and Bit error rate computation for various modulation scheme in AWGN

  1. Bit error rate for BPSK
  2. Bit error rate for FSK (frequency shift keying)
  3. Bit error rate for differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK)
  4. Symbol error rate for 4-PAM
  5. Symbol error rate for QPSK
  6. Symbol error rate for 16-QAM
  7. Symbol error rate for 16-PSK
  8. Comparing symbol error rate for 16QAM and 16PSK modulation

Orthogonal signals

  1. Minimum frequency spacing for having orthogonal sinusoidals
  2. OFDM transmission
  3. Cyclic prefix in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
  4. Peak to average power ratio in OFDM signalling

Receiver synchronization

  1. Frequency offset estimation using 802.11a short preamble
  2. First order PLL for tracking constant phase offset


  1. Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) filter
  2. Digital implementation of RC low pass filter
  3. Transmit pulse shaping filter

Hardware efficient signal processing circuits

  1. Polyphase filters for interpolation
  2. Using CORDIC for phase rotation
  3. Using CORDIC for phase and magnitude computation


  1. Straight line fit using Least Squares (LS) estimate
  2. Interpreting the output of FFT()


  1. MIMO with Zero Forcing equalizer
  2. MIMO with MMSE equalizer
  3. MIMO with ZF Successive Interference Cancellation equalizer
  4. MIMO with ML equalization
  5. MIMO with MMSE SIC and optimal ordering

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