PAM

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Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK and PAM

by Krishna Sankar on May 11, 2008

In this post, let us try to understand Gray codes and their usage in digital communication. Quoting from Wiki entry on Gray code [Gray-Wiki], The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank [...]

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Need for I-Q modulator and demodulator

by Krishna Sankar on April 5, 2008

spectrum of passband PAM

Post describes about the need for I-Q modulation by comparing the spectral efficiency of passband PAM and passband QAM.

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Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 4-PAM

by Krishna Sankar on October 7, 2007

Probability Distribuition Function 4PAM alphabet1

Following discussion of bit error rate (BER) for BPSK and bit error rate for FSK, it may be interesting to move on to discuss a higher order constellation such as Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Consider [...]

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