Gray

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16QAM Bit Error Rate (BER) with Gray mapping

by Krishna Sankar on June 5, 2008

Bit Error Rate plot for 16QAM with Gray mapping

Let us derive the theoretical 16QAM bit error rate (BER) with Gray coded constellation mapping in additive white Gaussian noise conditions. Further, the Matlab/Octave simulation script can be used to confirm that the simulation is [...]

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Binary to Gray code for 16QAM

by Krishna Sankar on June 1, 2008

16QAM modulation with Gray coded mapping

In the previous post on Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK, I had claimed that “for a general M-QAM modulation the binary to Gray code conversion is bit more complicated“. However following a closer [...]

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Gray code to Binary conversion for PSK and PAM

by Krishna Sankar on May 12, 2008

Given that we have discussed Binary to Gray code conversion, let us discuss the Gray to BInary conversion. Conversion from Gray code to natural Binary Let be the equivalent Gray code for an bit binary [...]

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Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK and PAM

by Krishna Sankar on May 11, 2008

In this post, let us try to understand Gray codes and their usage in digital communication. Quoting from Wiki entry on Gray code [Gray-Wiki], The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank [...]

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