AWGN

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BER for BPSK in Rayleigh channel

by Krishna Sankar on August 10, 2008

BER plot of BPSK in Rayleigh fading channel

Long back in time we discussed the BER (bit error rate) for BPSK modulation in a simple AWGN channel (time stamps states August 2007). Almost an year back! It high time we discuss the BER [...]

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Comparing BPSK, QPSK, 4PAM, 16QAM, 16PSK, 64QAM and 32PSK

by Krishna Sankar on July 8, 2008

I have written another article in DSPDesginLine.com. This article can be treated as the third post in the series aimed at understanding Shannon’s capacity equation. For the first two posts in the series are: 1. [...]

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Bounds on Communication based on Shannon’s capacity

by Krishna Sankar on June 18, 2008

Spectral efficiency vs Bit to noise ratio

This is the second post in the series aimed at developing a better understanding of Shannon’s capacity equation. In this post let us discuss the bounds on communication given the signal power and bandwidth constraint. [...]

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Understanding Shannon’s capacity equation

by Krishna Sankar on June 15, 2008

Voltage levels with noise

Let us try to understand the formula for Channel Capacity with an Average Power Limitation, described in Section 25 of the landmark paper A Mathematical Theory for Communication, by Mr. Claude Shannon. Further, the following [...]

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BPSK BER with OFDM modulation

by Krishna Sankar on June 10, 2008

BER plot for BPSK using OFDM modulation

Oflate, I am getting frequent requests for bit error rate simulations using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. In this post, we will discuss a simple OFDM transmitter and receiver, find the relation between Eb/No [...]

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16QAM Bit Error Rate (BER) with Gray mapping

by Krishna Sankar on June 5, 2008

Bit Error Rate plot for 16QAM with Gray mapping

Let us derive the theoretical 16QAM bit error rate (BER) with Gray coded constellation mapping in additive white Gaussian noise conditions. Further, the Matlab/Octave simulation script can be used to confirm that the simulation is [...]

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Article in DSPDesignLine.com: M-QAM symbol error

by Krishna Sankar on May 24, 2008

Its been a nice week for me, wherein I guest posted an article in DSPDesignLine.com. The article derives the theoretical symbol error rate for M-QAM modulation. The theoretical results are further supplemented by Matlab/Octave simulation [...]

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Bit error rate for 16PSK modulation using Gray mapping

by Krishna Sankar on May 18, 2008

16PSK constellation with Gray mapping

In this post, let us derive the theoretical bit error probability for 16PSK modulation using Gray coded mapping. For deriving the equation, we will refer material from the following posts: (a) Symbol Error Rate for [...]

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Comparing 16PSK vs 16QAM for symbol error rate

by Krishna Sankar on March 29, 2008

Comparing 16PSK and 16QAM symbol error rate

In two previous posts, we have derived theoretical symbol error rate for 16-QAM and 16-PSK modulation schemes. The links are: (a) Symbol error rate for 16-PSK (b) Symbol error rate for 16-QAM Given that we [...]

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Symbol Error Rate for 16PSK

by Krishna Sankar on March 18, 2008

angle between constellation points 16psk

In this post, let us try to derive the symbol error rate for 16-PSK (16-Phase Shift Keying) modulation. Consider a general M-PSK modulation, where the alphabets, are used. (Refer example 5-38 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]) Figure: 16-PSK [...]

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Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 16-QAM

by Krishna Sankar on December 9, 2007

16QAM constellation plot

Given that we have went over the symbol error probability for 4-PAM and symbol error rate for 4-QAM , let us extend the understanding to find the symbol error probability for 16-QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude [...]

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Symbol Error Rate (SER) for QPSK (4-QAM) modulation

by Krishna Sankar on November 6, 2007

probability density function of 4QAM

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used [...]

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Symbol Error Rate (SER) for 4-PAM

by Krishna Sankar on October 7, 2007

Probability Distribuition Function 4PAM alphabet1

Following discussion of bit error rate (BER) for BPSK and bit error rate for FSK, it may be interesting to move on to discuss a higher order constellation such as Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Consider [...]

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Coherent demodulation of DBPSK

by Krishna Sankar on September 30, 2007

tx_rx_coherent_demod_dbpsk

In a previous post, we discussed about a probable first order digital PLL for tracking constant phase offset. The assumption was that as the phase offset is small and the bits gets decoded correctly, the [...]

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