Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on May 11, 2008

In this post, let us try to understand Gray codes and their usage in digital communication. Quoting from Wiki entry on Gray code [Gray-Wiki], The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on March 29, 2008

In two previous posts, we have derived theoretical symbol error rate for 16-QAM and 16-PSK modulation schemes. The links are: (a) Symbol error rate for 16-PSK (b) Symbol error rate for 16-QAM Given that we [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on March 18, 2008

In this post, let us try to derive the symbol error rate for 16-PSK (16-Phase Shift Keying) modulation. Consider a general M-PSK modulation, where the alphabets, are used. (Refer example 5-38 in [DIG-COMM-BARRY-LEE-MESSERSCHMITT]) Figure: 16-PSK [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on January 19, 2008

Minimum shift keying (MSK) is an important concept to learn in digital communications. It is a form of continuous phase frequency shift keying . In minimum phase shift keying, two key concepts are used. (a) [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on December 9, 2007

Given that we have went over the symbol error probability for 4-PAM and symbol error rate for 4-QAM , let us extend the understanding to find the symbol error probability for 16-QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on November 6, 2007

Given that we have discussed symbol error rate probability for a 4-PAM modulation, let us know focus on finding the symbol error probability for a QPSK (4-QAM) modulation scheme. Background Consider that the alphabets used [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on October 7, 2007

Following discussion of bit error rate (BER) for BPSK and bit error rate for FSK, it may be interesting to move on to discuss a higher order constellation such as Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM). Consider [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on September 30, 2007

In a previous post, we discussed about a probable first order digital PLL for tracking constant phase offset. The assumption was that as the phase offset is small and the bits gets decoded correctly, the [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on September 23, 2007

When QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is used, typically one may find a scaling factor associated with the constellation mapping operation. It may be reasonably obvious that this scaling factor is for normalizing the average energy [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on August 30, 2007

Following the request by Siti Naimah, this post discuss the bit error probability for coherent demodulation of binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) along with a small Matlab code snippet. Using the definition provided in Sec [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*

Loading ...

by Krishna Sankar on August 5, 2007

In this post, we will derive the theoretical equation for bit error rate (BER) with Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. The BER results obtained using Matlab/Octave [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article
by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter.
* Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.*