Modulation

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (10 votes, average: 3.80 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Symbol Error rate for QAM (16, 64, 256,.., M-QAM)

by Krishna Sankar on January 1, 2012

plot_symbol_error_rate_16qam_64qam_256qam_ofdm_awgn

In May 2008, we derived the theoretical symbol error rate for a general M-QAM modulation (in  Embedded.com, DSPDesignLine.com and dsplog.com) under Additive White Gaussian Noise. While re-reading that post, felt that the article is nice and warrants a [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (4 votes, average: 4.00 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Non coherent demodulation of pi/8 D8PSK (TETRA)

by Krishna Sankar on July 20, 2010

Constellation pi/8 d8psk TETRA specifications

In TETRA specifications, one of the modulation technique used is Differential 8 Phase Shift Keying (D8PSK). We will discuss the bit error rate with non-coherent demodulation of D8PSK in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel.

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (3 votes, average: 3.67 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Non coherent demodulation of pi/4 DQPSK (TETRA)

by Krishna Sankar on April 12, 2010

Constellation of pi/4 DQPSK specification

In TETRA specifications, one of the modulation technique used is Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). We will discuss the bit error rate with non-coherent demodulation of DQPSK in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel.

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (7 votes, average: 4.43 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Softbit for 16QAM

by Krishna Sankar on July 5, 2009

Gray coded 16QAM bit mapping for bit b1

In the post on Soft Input Viterbi decoder, we had discussed BPSK modulation with convolutional coding and soft input Viterbi decoding in AWGN channel. Let us know discuss the derivation of soft bits for 16QAM [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (12 votes, average: 3.42 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

MSK transmitter and receiver

by Krishna Sankar on June 16, 2009

OQPSK and MSK transmit sequence

In a post on Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), we had discussed that MSK uses two frequencies which are separated by and phase discontinuity is avoided in symbol boundaries. In that post, we had discussed MSK [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (9 votes, average: 4.11 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Derivation of BPSK BER in Rayleigh channel

by Krishna Sankar on January 22, 2009

This is a guest post by Jose Antonio Urigüen who is an Electrical and Electronic Engineer currently studying an MSc in Communications and Signal Processing at Imperial College in London. This guest post has been [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (24 votes, average: 4.29 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Download free e-book on error probability in AWGN

by Krishna Sankar on October 1, 2008

We have quite a few articles discussing bit and symbol error rates for popular digital modulation schemes in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. This post summarizes the articles discussing the theoretical and simulated error [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (41 votes, average: 4.51 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

BER for BPSK in Rayleigh channel

by Krishna Sankar on August 10, 2008

BER plot of BPSK in Rayleigh fading channel

Long back in time we discussed the BER (bit error rate) for BPSK modulation in a simple AWGN channel (time stamps states August 2007). Almost an year back! It high time we discuss the BER [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (21 votes, average: 4.24 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Comparing BPSK, QPSK, 4PAM, 16QAM, 16PSK, 64QAM and 32PSK

by Krishna Sankar on July 8, 2008

I have written another article in DSPDesginLine.com. This article can be treated as the third post in the series aimed at understanding Shannon’s capacity equation. For the first two posts in the series are: 1. [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (15 votes, average: 4.73 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

16QAM Bit Error Rate (BER) with Gray mapping

by Krishna Sankar on June 5, 2008

Bit Error Rate plot for 16QAM with Gray mapping

Let us derive the theoretical 16QAM bit error rate (BER) with Gray coded constellation mapping in additive white Gaussian noise conditions. Further, the Matlab/Octave simulation script can be used to confirm that the simulation is [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (5 votes, average: 4.40 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Binary to Gray code for 16QAM

by Krishna Sankar on June 1, 2008

16QAM modulation with Gray coded mapping

In the previous post on Binary to Gray code conversion for PSK, I had claimed that “for a general M-QAM modulation the binary to Gray code conversion is bit more complicated“. However following a closer [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (2 votes, average: 2.00 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Article in DSPDesignLine.com: M-QAM symbol error

by Krishna Sankar on May 24, 2008

Its been a nice week for me, wherein I guest posted an article in DSPDesignLine.com. The article derives the theoretical symbol error rate for M-QAM modulation. The theoretical results are further supplemented by Matlab/Octave simulation [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (4 votes, average: 5.00 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Bit error rate for 16PSK modulation using Gray mapping

by Krishna Sankar on May 18, 2008

16PSK constellation with Gray mapping

In this post, let us derive the theoretical bit error probability for 16PSK modulation using Gray coded mapping. For deriving the equation, we will refer material from the following posts: (a) Symbol Error Rate for [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (6 votes, average: 3.17 out of 5)
Loading ... Loading ...
Print Print

Gray code to Binary conversion for PSK and PAM

by Krishna Sankar on May 12, 2008

Given that we have discussed Binary to Gray code conversion, let us discuss the Gray to BInary conversion. Conversion from Gray code to natural Binary Let be the equivalent Gray code for an bit binary [...]

D id you like this article? Make sure that you do not miss a new article by subscribing to RSS feed OR subscribing to e-mail newsletter. Note: Subscribing via e-mail entitles you to download the free e-Book on BER of BPSK/QPSK/16QAM/16PSK in AWGN.